Commercial Tobacco Use Infographic: More than 1 in 4 AI/AN adults smoke cigarettes. At 26%, that's 1.5 times greater than the US smoking rate. Out of the 10 leading causes of death among AI/AN, 6 of them have been linked to smoking. To download the full .pdf infographic, scroll down.
Commercial tobacco is manufactured by companies for recreational and habitual use in cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, cigars, hookahs, and other products. Commercial tobacco is mass-produced and sold for profit. It contains thousands of chemicals and produces over 7,000 chemical compounds when burned, many of which are carcinogenic, cause heart and other diseases, and premature death.1 Nicotine is the primary addictive substance contained in commercial tobacco. Nicotine causes an almost immediate stimulation in the user, followed by depression, which causes the user to crave more.2 Alongside the process of addiction, nicotine harms health by accelerating heart rate, reducing oxygen supply to body tissues, constricting blood vessels and raising blood pressure, which weakens organs, such as the heart, over time.3
There is no safe level of exposure to commercial tobacco smoke and the damage from commercial tobacco smoke is immediate. The 2014 Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health documented causal associations between smoking and 15 different cancers (i.e. lung, colorectal, cervical, kidney, liver, stomach), heart disease, stroke, COPD, asthma, diabetes, and adverse health outcomes in cancer patients and survivors, among others. Secondhand smoke exposure has been causally associated with lung cancer, heart disease, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), reproductive effects in women (premature birth, low birth weight), and an increased risk for stroke as well.
Commercial tobacco is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act,4 though the Act does not apply to cigars, little cigars, hookah, or pipe tobacco, or electronic nicotine devices. The FDA is currently in the process of establishing regulations over these commercial tobacco products, including advertising and promotion.5
Manufacturers have designed commercial tobacco products to be more attractive and addictive. Commercial tobacco companies have targeted American Indians and Alaska Natives in marketing, sponsoring events and giveaways, devising promotional strategies, and misappropriating cultural imagery and concepts.6,7
A disproportionate percentage of American Indian and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) use commercial tobacco compared to other ethnic groups in the United States. In 2014, the CDC reported that 26.1% of all AI/AN adults were cigarette smokers. This rate is compared to 19.4% for whites, 18.3% for African Americans, 12.1% for Hispanics and 9.6% for Asians. AI/AN adults also have the highest usage rate for smokeless tobacco and cigars, and for the use of multiple tobacco products.
Based on region, commercial tobacco abuse prevalence among AI/AN varies, with the Southwest being lower and the Northern Plains being much higher. Smoking prevalence rates have been documented within certain Tribes as being greater than 70% using the American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey, which was developed by the CDC and Tribes to improve the quality of data collection among AI/AN populations who are underrepresented in national surveys. Tribe-specific data also documents smoking initiation beginning before age eight and regular smoking beginning during the tween and teen years.
In some communities, commercial tobacco may be erroneously used in place of traditional tobacco for ceremonies. However, traditional and commercial tobacco differ in the way that they are planted and grown, harvested, prepared, and used. Commercial tobacco use prevention and cessation outreach among American Indians and Alaska Natives should be informed by and tailored to the Tribal community’s culture.
TOBACCO ABUSE IMPACT
High commercial tobacco use rates among American Indians and Alaska Natives are directly reflected in the disproportionate rates of chronic diseases in AI/AN populations, where six of the top eight causes of death are linked to smoking. The leading cause of cancer death among American Indian and American Native populations is lung cancer.
AI/AN also suffer from much higher rates of asthma than any other ethnic group. The incidence of asthma among AI/AN children is 20% higher than any other ethnic group and AI/AN adults are 60% more likely to be diagnosed with the condition compared to adults in other ethnic groups.
There is no safe level of exposure to commercial tobacco smoke, and the damage from commercial tobacco smoke is immediate. Commercial tobacco abuse prevention and cessation are vital for American Indian and Alaska Native health and well-being.
Commercial Tobacco Resources
PDF ARTICLE: MEASURING INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENGAGING CALIFORNIA INDIAN STAKEHOLDERS AT THE WIN-RIVER RESORT AND CASINO: COLLABORATIVE SMOKE-FREE POLICY DEVELOPMENT
Abstract: Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition
provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.
National Native Network American Indian/Alaska Native Commercial Tobacco developed an Infographic in 2015 with up to date statistics on smoking rates and resources for tribal health systems and communities.
Mowery PD, et. al., article published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2015. Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites). Findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2015 publication on nonsmokers' exposure to secondhand smoke in the U.S. 1999-2012.
LINK THE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF SMOKING - 50 YEARS OF PROGRESS: A REPORT OF THE SURGEON GENERAL, 2014
Comprehensive report on commercial tobacco use in the United States with national data on incidence, up-to-date on health consequences of smoking, best and promising practices, and future directions in commercial tobacco control.